Having mastered it, I proceeded to cheap writing service project from local sources.
Interestingly, during the time I was in Penang inthe subject of abortion was brought up as a public issue in the national newspapers as part of an attempt by medical specialists to address its widespread use and availability. This focus on abortion in the national media lasted for a few weeks and then quietly faded from view.
Results and Discussion This profile of clinic clients was derived from data analysis of computerized client records stored in a database management system. Most of the analysis presented here in tabular form covers the six and a half year period between January and May The programs that were developed to create the client profile were run over a period of two and a half months inand over a month in step by step essay writing guide not represent a one-time case study abortion in malaysia of the case study abortion in malaysia database.
Instead, they reflect the passage of time and the growth of the aqa english lit b a2 coursework database. Numbers do not necessarily tally from one table to the next.
The numbers, however, do provide a consistent characterization of the client profile at this case study abortion in malaysia. While the total client base ranged in age from 11 to 50 plus, most analyses focused on women aged P-values were significant and are noted with those tables.
The discussion of age, ethnicity, income and occupation refers to all clinic clients.
Imprisoned in Malaysia After Legal Abortion
The remaining discussion focuses on only those clients who seek pregnancy termination services at the clinic. The total number of clients including those seeking services other than pregnancy terminations has been constant over the last six and a half years January – Mayi.
Table 1 includes a small proportion of male clients. The percentage less than one percent of male clients is insignificant, coming largely for vasectomies. About ten percent of clinic business consists of non-pregnancy termination-related procedures such as insertion and removal of IUDs, tubal ligations, contraceptive counseling and reproductive health examinations.
Female clients younger than 15 and older than 44 years of age do not constitute a significant proportion of the clientele at the clinic. Therefore, the figures in Table 1 are not significantly skewed by the inclusion of clients helmyf.000webhostapp.com visit the clinic for services other than pregnancy termination. While the largest number of women seeking pregnancy terminations are in the age group, many are also in their cases study abortion in malaysia.
It is also worth noting that there is a growing trend toward single teenaged and young adult working women under age 30 Table 1 seeking pregnancy terminations, while fewer women in their forties are appearing at the clinic, perhaps as a result of increased experience with contraception or better contraceptive knowledge and access. Clinic clientele tend to roughly conform ethnically to their representation in the population of the state, i.
This ethnic profile has been fairly constant throughout the history of the clinic. Over the last six and a half years, there have been more and more non-Chinese women visiting the clinic for pregnancy terminations and other purposes Table 2. Malay cases study abortion in malaysia who were formerly underrepresented in proportion to their population are now visiting sites that write papers for you case study abortion in malaysia in greater numbers.
Similarly, women not of the three major ethnic groups have also come to the clinic in greater numbers. In turn, literally fewer Chinese women are coming for clinic services.
The increase in female clients of other ethnic groups perhaps reflects the economic growth and changes in migration patterns of the city and case study abortion in malaysia as a whole. There has been an influx of workers from surrounding poorer countries such as Indonesia, the Philippines and Bangladesh.
Women from these countries are employed primarily in the plantation, construction and entertainment industries, as well as in domestic services. Their primary aim is to earn money to repatriate to their home countries, and it is possible that children would hinder their capacity to work. According to clinic staff, many of these women opt for abortions to terminate unwanted cases study abortion in malaysia. During my research stay, there were at least two Indonesians and one Bangladeshi who visited the clinic to terminate pregnancies.
Some of these women had difficulties with language and in communicating their needs. Clinic nurses mentioned that Caucasian women who were en route to other destinations on tour ships, for example, would also come by for case study abortion in malaysia pregnancy cases study abortion in malaysia.
In aggregate totals over the last six and eaccess.dapldevelopment.com half years within the clinic sample, Chinese women are coming in larger numbers in the teenaged and over forty age groups.
Indian women in the age group are also visiting the clinic in larger numbers. There has been only slight variation around this over the years. Various factors such as visual inspection, number of wage earners in the household, occupations of wage earners, number of children in the household, and the number of previous pregnancy terminations a client has had are taken into account.
At this clinic, an abortion costs an average of RM The estimated GNP per dissertation boule de suif in Penang was RM10, compared to a corresponding case study abortion in malaysia estimate of RM7, indicating that Penangites are generally better off than those in cases study abortion in malaysia other parts of the country9.
A monthly household income of RM2, and above would be considered middle-class while those below this level would be considered working-class. The majority of clinic clients are working-class women with monthly household incomes of an estimated RM, Table 3.
As a point of reference, the average monthly wage of a factory worker in Penang in was about RM About half 45 percent of the clinic clientele are housewives who work within the home Table 4.
A substantial number of these women are also of working-class standing.
Malaysia has an abortion law, which permits termination of pregnancy to save a woman’s life and to preserve her physical and mental health (Penal Code Section , amended in ). However, lack of clear interpretation and understanding of the law results in women facing difficulties in accessing abortion information and services.
Other occupations stated by clients include hair stylist, office clerk, sales clerk, laborer, maid, street vendor, seamstress and waitress, which are working-class or pink-collar cases study abortion in malaysia.
Only a small proportion of women hold middle-class jobs in teaching, nursing, management or sales Table 5. Slightly less than one-fifth of the women who visit the clinic are factory workers and less than ten percent of all clients are Malay factory workers Table 4. This goes against the conventional belief that it is single Malay factory women who populate the pregnancy termination clinics surrounding industrial trade zones This phenomenon is not supported by the data at this particular clinic, which is located close to the free trade zone.
If her conviction is upheld, it will likely open the door to more women being unjustly arrested and prosecuted for abortion. Following the raid of a health clinic in Penang, Malaysia, a young woman has been wrongfully arrested and sentenced to 12 months in prison for obtaining a legal abortion.
Twenty-four-year-old Nirmala and her husband came to Malaysia from their home country of Nepal as legal migrant cases study abortion in malaysia. Nirmala is an operator at the Sony factory.
Her husband works as a security guard. Last month, shortly after discovering she was pregnant and fearing that she would lose her job as a result, Nirmala sought an abortion at a local clinic. The majority of clinic clients are working-class women with monthly household incomes of an estimated RM, Table 3. As a point of reference, the average monthly wage of a factory worker in Penang in was about RM About half 45 percent of the clinic clientele are housewives who work within the home Table 4.
A substantial number of these women are also of working-class standing. Other occupations stated by clients include hair stylist, office clerk, sales clerk, laborer, maid, street vendor, seamstress and waitress, which are working-class or pink-collar jobs. Only a small proportion of women hold middle-class jobs in teaching, nursing, management or sales Table 5.
Slightly less than one-fifth of the women who visit the clinic are case study abortion in malaysia workers and less than ten percent of all clients are Malay factory workers Table 4. This goes against the conventional belief that it is single Malay factory women who populate the pregnancy termination clinics surrounding industrial trade zones This phenomenon is not supported by the data at this particular clinic, which is located close to the free trade zone.
On the case study abortion in malaysia hand, Malay women may be seeking herbal remedies and other abortifacients from local healers instead of visiting western medical clinics, or using over-the-counter drugs intended for other purposes Of 23, clients visiting for pregnancy terminations between January and May78 percent had used contraception before.
Of those who professed never to have used any form of contraception before, most were women in their twenties Table 6. The remaining non-users were primarily in their teens or thirties. Of never-users, Chinese and Malay women How to make table for research paper most likely not to have used contraception before their clinic visit Table 7.
The relatively low rate for Indian women never having used contraception is difficult to explain. It remains speculative kirby business plan this is an indication of mostly middle-class Indian women with prior use of contraception visiting the clinic in larger numbers or of Indian women of all social classes within the clinic sample being likely to have used contraception before.
Perhaps the partners of these women are more willing to use contraception than men of other ethnic groups. Since the lives of Indian women in Malaysia remain under-researched, the possible reasons for this occurrence cannot presently be determined. Many women who had used contraception at least once previously did not use any method initially Table 8.
Artificial cases study abortion in malaysia such as the IUD and Pill were much less preferred. Malay women were likely to use herbs obtained from their villages. Spermicides or Postinor a type of pill usually prescribed for women with infrequent sexual activity were rarely the first methods chosen. This term most likely is a direct translation from the Malay, Hokkien and Tamil colloquial terms for abortion. I was unsure of how to answer her since my understanding was that both terms were interchangeable.
It is worth mentioning dulcessweet.000webhostapp.com words for abortion which can obscure the clarity of what is actually happening to a woman.
Imprisoned in Malaysia After Legal Abortion
Repeat abortions refer to clients with a record of at least one prior pregnancy termination performed either at this clinic or elsewhere. An earlier January – June analysis of the repeat abortion rate showed that one in five women had previously had a termination of pregnancy at the clinic. The majority of clients have not been to the clinic for a pregnancy termination before, which may be an indication of the benefits of contraceptive counseling at this clinic.
This remains speculative since the repeat abortion rate internal to this clinic could be relatively low compared to repeat abortions done elsewhere for other reasons.
Some clients could be going to other clinics or using other means if they are using abortion as a contraceptive method and would perhaps feel too embarrassed to return to this clinic too frequently. Cost may be a factor, but this clinic is relatively affordable for case study abortion in malaysia working-class women.
An abortion at this clinic costs RM on average, while some clients had reported charges of RM at another clinic for the same procedure. Nurses also ask clients for the number of prior pregnancy terminations they have had and enter the data in the client records system. However, this field was left blank in about 56 percent of the records. When blank fields were excluded from the case study abortion in malaysia of the repeat abortion rate, about two-thirds of all cases study abortion in malaysia had had at least one prior pregnancy termination.
The clinic director asserted that fields left blank meant the same as zero prior pregnancy terminations. When fields coded blank were assumed to mean zero prior pregnancy terminations, the repeat rate dropped off to about 50 percent of the total sample Table 9.
These self-reports refer to women having had one or more prior pregnancy terminations at this clinic or elsewhere at any time in their reproductive careers. The average number of prior pregnancy terminations cases study abortion in malaysia have had appears to be around one. Of the clinic clients who have a history of prior pregnancy terminations, the majority had just one and less than ten percent have had case study abortion in malaysia or more Table 9.
The nurses tended to exaggerate both their numbers and the frequency of their visits, i. These data again refer to women who have had case study abortion in malaysia pregnancy terminations anywhere and anytime during their reproductive careers. Nurses filling out client histories would have asked if clients had been to the clinic before or if they had gone elsewhere to have a washout, the term locally used. It was left to the client to volunteer as much detail as desired. Although the calendar estimate was fairly accurate, in some cases there case study abortion in malaysia wide discrepancies between it and the ultrasound scan result.
Table 10 reflects data from the calendar estimate because the ultrasound result was not recorded in a form conducive to statistical analysis. Most women come for pregnancy terminations when they are weeks pregnant.
The case study abortion in malaysia in average age of clients broken down by the estimated length of pregnancy is very slight. Based on experience, the clinic director intimated that he had noticed a worrying trend. Younger clients tended to come in later for their terminations, which appeared to be borne out by the analysis Table This trend appears to be occurring in las-cosas-son-cosas.000webhostapp.com larger proportion of younger aged clients were coming in with pregnancies of ten cases study abortion in malaysia or later, and the reasons for this were unknown.
In the West, several reasons are usually hypothesized: Conclusions The conclusions based on this single clinic study cannot be generalized. With that understanding, the organization, management style and mode of operation pay to write a research paper this clinic suggest an efficiently run, woman-friendly environment.
Abortion access is very good. The clinic is affordable to most working-class women as evidenced by the average income level of clients.